APA Format Google Docs

today we’re going to look at how to format a APA paper using Google Docs so I opened up a blank document I’m going to give my document a title real quick there are a couple of things we have to set up beforehand APA requires a running header this is different on the first page that it is on the following page so we’ll start by setting up that running header and to do that you simply double click up at the top of the document and it will open up the header function and so here you can see a couple of things going on one and this is all the way up at the top of the document you don’t want it up that high so go ahead and enter twice and then we’re going to go ahead and type in the words running head and a colon and this is what will only be on your first page so we will also want to make sure and click different first page header because this one that’s right when you do that if you don’t do that first it starts over running head and I accidentally capitalized the H according to APA only the art in running is capitalized after that we’ll have a comb and then you’re going to type in the title of your paper you’re going to type it in not like this but in all caps and you’re only going to type in the first 50 characters if your if your title is longer than only use the first caret 50 characters you can course stop at the end of a word leaving half a word is kind of not very good um the other thing we’re going to do is we’re going to insert a page number come on in third and so we need to insert the page number and here we’re just going to put it I just select the first one we also we want that to be over on the right hand side so I’m simply going to tab tab tab tab until it gets all the way over there I don’t want it all the way at the end so notice this ends up right about above the six and that’s fine and then finally I’m going to highlight everything and I need to change this to Times New Roman APA prefers Times New Roman and it prefers 12-point font so once I change the font you notice that kind of moved over but then it moved it back all right so now once I’ve typed in running head my title of course move down a few spaces put in the page number and scooted that over put it all in Times New Roman 12 point and said different first page header footer I’m good to go with my header for my first page now the thing is is the second page and following all have different a different heading so I’m going to go ahead and insert a page break and that way here it’s using what I had typed in initially but you go ahead and type in up now I almost did it in regular but we wanted in caps lock your title your 1550 characters and then notice this scooted my number down I want to make sure it’s on the same line I’m just going to hit delete a couple of times and then of course tab it over I’m really looking at the arrow right here and I want it right under the six because that will leave room if I do happen to paint right a paper that goes over um ten pages I end up in double digits then it’s not going to just automatically wrap wrap and again same process I want to make sure this is in Times New Roman and in 12.1 oh and then if it comes back if it wraps double check that because whatever that looks like now it will always look like once that’s done I’m good to go in terms of my headings I click out of the header box and then I’m back in the regular space now we can go back up here and format and so you’ll know this spiffy title one we can go ahead and format our title page to do this I’m going to make this a little smaller so we can look at the whole page itself and that helps quite a bit in what you want to do is you want to move this down so that you’ll take a look at it here’s our page we want to enter there are those tabs there and we want to enter to learn approximately in the middle of the page I’ve never known anyone that measured I’m sure if you have a teacher professor who is that picky he or she will let you know exactly so many inches this area we’re going to send to this of course and we’re going to have our title now the only place by titles and all caps is in these headers so here it is this going to be major words capitalized you can have a two line title often a two line title and an academic paper will have something that’s like the topic or the point and then another part that’s fun which one comes first just depends on what you like what’s your what what perch about a look at titles fruit see ages I know that kind of messes up that fifty line rule I mean fifty character rule with enter but this is just an example after your title you’re going to have of your name first name and your last name if you have a middle of initial we’ll put that in there you sure can and then right after that you want to go ahead and put in the um how would your University you attend and going to spell it out um no shortcuts and spell correctly that’s always a good thing wins the hearts of English teachers all over the world I can tell you from experience I may not be able to spell well but I can tell when things are spelled wrong now what I’m going to do is Oh first a woman to go back in and get rid of about half of these lines because the one thing I didn’t do was I didn’t double-spaced so I’m going to hit control a that selects everything I’m gonna go ahead and move this back up to 100% so we can look at the whole thing and then I’m going to tell it to go to of course Arial not Arial I’m kind of new roman and twelve so control a selects everything that means every spaces in this document has been selected so after this point everything should be in in my Times New Roman in my 12-point font and there are a couple of other things I didn’t do one is so this is a single space we want to make sure that the whole thing is I’m going to go back and do control a which again will collect everything and tell it to double space unlike in word Google does not add extra space before after your paragraph so you don’t have to fix that the final thing we need on this title page is and see there I just use ctrl and scroll down as using my mouse you can use ctrl + minus on your keyboard and that will um make your image is smaller than the bigger and that way you can see what it looks like and this is visual proof reading in the end with your documents do this so that you can see what it looks like because that’s the first thing anybody reads and only the words on the paper they read what it looks like and if it looks like an APA paper and that’s what your teacher wanted you look even better this is the author note and here you put the course that you’re preparing this for so this was prepared for English this paper was prepared for English 1301 taught by professor foot um you can just last name or you could use the professor’s first and last name if you want so that’s all that says author note this paper was prepared for sometimes you’ll see this up higher APA does not give any definitive rules on on whether that’s better or not okay control-enter just going to give me that hard page and you’ll notice there’s my sissy cut sometimes you will be required to do an abstract so you’ll have your abstract here and then after that you will just put in your paragraph that summarizes your paper so this is something you come back and do once you have completed your paper and it’s just a paragraph about 250 words what’s your main point went um what do you mean what’s your thesis your main point what are your different sub points just put in the smooth paragraph in the end if it’s a persuasive paper argumentative paper what was your final decision about that after your abstract again we’ll end up inserting another I’m going to go back to that there are different regular-size and we’ll go ahead and insert another page so we have our author note we have our abstract we fill this out a little bit form then a few more words late later on show you a few things so copy that just copy it some professors do like you to have key words in which case you go down here and enter once you’re done with your abstract and in italics key words : and um turn your italics off and then put in your idols Meg that’s Richard or whatever your keywords are so one of the kind of main topics overall um after that again to do your abstract you want to make sure you write your paper first so go ahead and go through and put in abstract and then you can just put in a page break and this puts us on page three where you will again type your title but remember it’s only going to be in regular case not in all caps and I don’t even remember what the subtitle I put in but if you have a title and a subtitle you do that enter left align and start your paper tab do not put in any extra spaces do not it make your title bold italics change the font and Creed unity that you’re working too hard and life is rough enough so keep it simple if you have headings in your paper APA has a standard for how you format these headings I will show you the one if you have major headings if you have a real short paper you really don’t need headings but let’s say you have a longer a three and a half four you’re hitting over five pages anything above that you might want to have some headings do not put ahead and clear introduction as the APA manual points out it’s an introduction so it’s really just about what they say your first level of heading would be in centered and in bold history of titles um and then after that again it’s kind of the same um same thing Oh too soon make sure in central’s that heading and then after that then we go back and we left alive and of course we have some words we have some words say you come to another section then again it’s going to be just the same way if you have a subsection and we have history of title and you want to cover the beginning of writing the Renaissance of modern age whatever there is a format for doing that so consult the APA book for a good website on that and that will give you the lowdown one of the things if you are using research of course you are going to need to if you’re using research you’re going to need to make sure that you control enter always gives you a hard page okay or insert page but if you’re using research you’re going to need to make sure that you use your references and one of the things that I do when I write a paper that I’m using sources for is I go ahead and type in my title my you know then notice how that didn’t Center it’s because I had a tab in there and so um but I go ahead and type in my title page I do all sorts of things like that it’s going to set up and then I’ll put in an empty page at the end and going to type references and enter notice this is not bold nothing big anything like that left and then when you go back and that way as I’m typing my paper when I use a source I can just scroll down to this last page and if either inserted a page break or press control injury will always say is the last page and then I can type in my reference and then I go back to writing my paper type in my reference so let’s suppose that we’ve done this remember the references will be alphabetical based on whatever is first so for example here this is a so this one should actually be right here should be first so make sure you do that alphabetizing keep those things straight that’s I mean there’s little details but these things are really importantly in terms of your reader just remember your teachers have read paper after paper after paper and when you screw this stuff up and make it harder for them to find what sources you’re using what you’re doing it doesn’t make them happy campers and they may love their job I love my job but it me and it’s still a job and it’s still work to do so anything you can do to make that job smoother it makes a difference I need to format these in a Chinese dinner once I’ve got you know them alphabetical and I make sure I do them right you can use a citation machine online just double-check it with a book or a good source in the end is your grade in order to format these though with this hanging indent because you can see it’s hard to kind of tell where one begins and the other ends have to look over here what we want is we want the second and any hallowing lines of each citation to be scooted over I’m going to go up here to the little indention thing it shows where our margins are at and this is theirs you can see there’s a triangle and there’s a rectangle and so I’m just going to put this on the triangle and I’m gonna move it over to what it is is it’s a half-inch mark so it’s the big one in the middle of the margin and the one now that’s good is it all over what I want is I want the first line of each reference to begin right on the margin so now I’m going to go up and grab the rectangle right on the top of this and I’m just going to scoot it back over to zero watch this si hanging indent once I do one when I go in here and say I have another citation I’m writing my paper and I’m like okay slide it I can enter wherever it goes you know look out for betta CLE do this you’re going along type in my citation and if I’m doing it inside of what sorry this format is this way it will always give me that hanging indent so those are the basic kind of things you need to know for formatting your APA paper I want to kind of make it smaller and let’s take a look remember once you’re done with your paper find a good sample whether it’s in one of your textbook or online and just visually proofread it look at it because it is one of the first things that any reader will notice and will look at so if you do that and you have visually proofread your paper you got to still work on your words and everything but it will make a difference so we have that running head look visually proofreading it so if I can see my one has flipped over here so I can go back up here and get rid of the tab put it right back there points already I’ve got my title I’ve got my name my college so it was prepared for once I’m done with the paper if I need an abstract I’ll come back and just type up a 200 250 word summary of my papers what did I say overall and then of course I’ve got my paper if I have any headings I’ve treated those correctly and then I have my references page an advanced I’m an extra page in here whether you inserted a page break or not if you ever want to get rid of it just backspace out even if my paper ends at the middle of the page I want to make sure my references are a separate page so there’s where that’s why putting in that page break or hitting ctrl enter which is a page break helps out a lot alright I hope this gives you a good start on formatting your APA paper you

How To Get an A* in History A-level Coursework

hello and welcome to my channel now in today’s video I’m going to be teaching you how you can potentially get an a start in your history coursework by following the tips and advice that I got slash acquired from doing my history coursework and gaining an a star oh that firstly disclaimer this is not guarantee that you will get an a star obviously you gonna put in the work the time the effort and hopefully with that and a bit of luck then you can also get an a star as well but it’s not guaranteed so don’t come running to me if you don’t get any style this is just the advice that I’m giving from what I’ve done to get the a star okay now that this claimant is done we can actually get on to what we’re gonna be talking about so answer the first thing that you need to be doing to get your start is to engage in the content that is being taught quick side note my coursework was based on the causes of the First World War just so it gives you a bit of context for when I gives you some examples so in my school they taught us all the content that we needed to know for our coursework to be able to write a substantiated argument so firstly just engage in that content make sure you’re not now you don’t have to enjoy it but enjoying it definitely helps and so make sure you understand what’s being taught and just get a foothold in it and understand what’s going on so leading on from that I would say make sure to try and get ahead so read up and what’s going to be taught about for example if you’re going to be talking about the Algeciras conference in 1905 then make sure to read up about that so then you know our way Germany got a conciliatory strip of the French Congo and then BAM you know that so when you’re in the lesson you already know what’s going on it’s refreshing your memory and then if your teacher asks you questions on it make sure you put up your hand because then that’ll just reinforce what you’ve very been taught and you’ve already learned so really getting ahead really does give you that foothold to jump onto the higher level okay so next I would say once you start engaging in the content and you started to learn about it and read ahead maybe trying to find a few sources that can add to your repertoire of knowledge they get some contemporary sources and get some secondary sources also get maybe ten of each as like a little baseline to aim for if you get the contemporary sources as they are the main things that you want to be researching and writing about when it comes to your coursework but make sure to know what you’re going to add to them so you think about okay maybe how could I interpret this what does this mean so start thinking about how you would add to the sources and how that would link into your arguments even though at this point in time you may not know what question you’re going to be writing about just get some ideas blowing through your head that’ll really help when it comes to planning paragraph whilst you’re doing this make sure to think about the context of the sources so when was it written or what would this suggest how does this context infer what might be said like what’s the socio-political climate at the time has this got a bearing on what would be said and just go along with that and then hopefully that will give you something to think about and it will get your bearings of why something’s been written like your next piece of advice I have is to write some practice essays I don’t think this is very common but our teacher definitely said to write some practice essays for it so they gave us some looks like homeworks go and do and I really do think it helped so just right you don’t have to know much just write a normal history essay on a topic so give yourself a question or get your teacher to give you a question I’m sure they’ll be more than happy to do that for you and then it just means that you get a bearing of what’s going on it gets you into this thing it acclimatize you essentially into the content that you’re learning about and with those essays get your teacher to mark them and then if you they mark them they should be able to give you some feedback now that feedback is gonna be crucial with your coursework because essentially it isn’t your coursework so they can mark it and then give you feedback on it and this feedback will be used for your coursework so if your teacher says oh it’s a really good essay but you haven’t evaluated it enough then think okay well I’m — my coursework I need to be extra sure that I include lots of evaluation and make it good evaluation okay so this comes to the point where you need to start figuring out what your question is going to be so firstly decide your judgement so what is the issue that you’re going to be talking about and what side are you arguing for please do not sit on the fence is a level you should be sitting on the fence I’m sure you won’t be sitting on the fence but just pick an argument and stick with it and at this point you should have had quite he sources so it should be some direction of which I do you think would have more evidence to support it and then just go with that side and pick a question I argued for my question say for example my question was how far was Germany’s decision to go to war in 1914 driven by the desire the territorial expansion now I was arguing for territorial expansion so therefore this question I was supporting whereas if it was how far was Germany’s decision to go to war in 1914 driven by defensive measures that I’ll be arguing against the question so think about which way you want to go okay so once you decided your question I would say to create a sheet I’m so quick yourself a table and this is where you’re going to start citing what kind of paragraph ideas you’re going to be doing so I started thinking about things like the slit throat of the bring hypothesis defensive concerns territorial expansion diplomatic failure things like that so I just started going off those and I started to create a sheet so I got all the sources I had acquired by this point and I put them in a column and then I wrote a little summary about each one so just to remind myself when I came back to it what it was about and then I put the Harvard reference on it say I had that when I came around to it please do that I’ll save you so much time at the end and you don’t have to rush and think about it or like the last day and then just put in the last little column what paragraph you were going to be putting that in and then once you’ve done that go back to move your summary bit and underneath it do a couple spaces and say how that source will contribute to that paragraph and what you’re going to write about in it that gives you some basis and understanding of where you’re going to go that sauce and how you can use it okay so next point I would say is draw up a detailed plan so let’s say just draw up your ideas and organize them neatly into a document as this allows you to move them around a later date if you don’t feel they fit quite right I did this so I started off things with like my first paragraph and then I found that this paragraph wasn’t actually gonna work very well being there so I adjusted it and I think that made my argument a bit stronger I guess after you’ve done your detailed plan I would then move on to do your completion which sounds like a really bizarre idea because firstly yourself there in judgment ways I’d say do your conclusion because this is the last thing in your paragraph so it makes you keep a consistent line through your work so by doing a paragraph in conclusion obviously you will come back to re-enter later at some point after you’ve agitant all your other paragraphs but to start off with just do your conclusion so you know what your judgment is and that you’ll stick to it because the whole point to get a good mark is just keeping your argument consistent I guess after you write your conclusion then you write your introduction start setting out what your argument is where you are arguing all along with this also stay what you’re arguing against so state the other paragraph ideas so just include the other viewpoints so that the people know what you’re gonna be talking about at this point you may want to include one or two sources but I’d say that’s it and don’t get into those sources because you’ll use them later on you may also want to put why your viewpoint is superior in to you this bit of your coursework just set it sets out for when it comes down to the conclusion so it says you can clearly see if you just read the instruction and the conclusion that your argument is consistent link into a question as well okay I think at this point is probably a good time to mention that you should start referencing so whilst you’re writing things and if you include some sources in your introduction for example just give them a lot of reference if you’re using word document you can literally just click the reference button and it’ll do it and make sure you just reference it if you don’t too sure how to reference things properly just go to a website called sightless for me and elder for you pretty much also if you use a source once and then you can reference it again straight after just type in a bit that is ibid and that on me same as above okay so at this point I’ll take go back and find some more sources so once you know exactly what you’re talking about find small sources that will support you and challenge your argument I’ll say most importantly try and find some sources that count to your argument and find out how you can use them make sure to acknowledge these source so say okay well this you point has some validity but it’s the nasty falls down because of this so bring in the source that you’re going to counter against and then use your own knowledge and say okay what it’s not very good because of this then bring in say a second resource and say this is also agreed upon by Fisher or whatever like that so then it shows that you’re using your own knowledge make sure to also put some context there because that can evaluate it really well and then it contemporary source a second source even we’ll just back it up and solidify your argument on where you stand and then at this point is probably time to start writing your main paragraph finally so I’d say you need to write maybe about three four five paragraphs something along those lines they they should probably quite long because they’re gonna be big chunky paragraphs they’re gonna be analytical they’re gonna be evaluative they’re gonna be really good and they just gonna show you why you’re so good in history I’d say you need to include at least a minimum one prime resource of one contemporary source per paragraph it’s fine if you do one and a bug masonry well analyze it really well and use your second resources to back it up and things of that so I’ll say maybe between two and four sources per paragraph something along these lines and with the main paragraphs also make sure to use your own knowledge all the time so this may be a good time to give back to your learn content and go engaging it again because that’ll really help just refresh your mind also go back to a paragraph sheets where you decided what sources were gonna be in each pair and use the summaries and they will just remind you again what sources you have and which sources you can use each paragraph and then once you’ve written each paragraph I would say believe it may be a day or go back for the next day something like that and then just go over it and say okay I don’t like the sound of this it gives you a fresh perspective when you like slept on it pretty much and then once you’ve done that you can improve them which is always a good thing once you’ve read a paragraph what you could do is try and consult your teacher which is always a good thing and a noon course what they can’t tell you a lot so why would say is just give them the paragraph get them to read it and I’m pretty sure they can say if this paragraph is good or this paragraph is improving if this in is improving then obviously go back and rewrite it redo it think okay where did I go wrong in this what happened and also do this often does that keep you on track with where you are and even if that means missing a lunch time for them to go read it and tell you if it’s good or bad go to it as this is your coursework it will help you it will get your grade up it will you need to do this and then obviously once you’ve done all your paragraphs you’ll have your first draft and now with your first draft what I would say to do you’ve noticed you can do this with your paragraphs when you do them is highlight them so get each assessment objective and just highlight them and be critical with yourself as the more critical you are the better but don’t be too critical wise bad so just say okay wherever I used my knowledge wherever I evaluated where have I been analytical that kind of thing and then if you see loads of white space in a certain area go over what’s wrong with that bit and then maybe delete it rewrite it and this is where you can go back and use the essays that you’ve written before so when they say oh you’ve really lacked on your evaluation then maybe you can look at it and see okay maybe I can print in my evaluation or maybe to see Oh actually there’s quite a few white spaces or there’s not much highlighted for the evaluation so then you can say okay in this white space I’m gonna include a bit more evaluation and then go of it like that and that will just help to improve it and make a great a bit better and then once you finally finished your course for go over it get some to proofread it whether it be a friend teacher parent anyone I’ll apps get loans read it and one thing I did was I went three and if you go and click like control Evan word and then you could type in a certain word to make sure you haven’t used it too much for example one word I found myself always using was further more and more either so I would just type it in and it would say maybe like you’ve used this word ten times so then I would just click through and cut it down and replace it with something like additionally but also don’t just use a word you don’t know to replace it with if you don’t know what it means because if you put it in it could make your I can not make sense and remember to compile your bibliography as this will also be needed so just get all half a referencing that you’ve done in your paragraph sheets and just put them in and that’ll make sure that you actually got it done and so once you’ve done all this you should have quite a good piece of coursework that is hopefully an a star sign I might also say at this point if you get the chance maybe discuss your ideas with your classmates and they may have some good ideas however do not under any circumstance copy them rip them off will do anything that could to get your work disqualified so just use them for a different perspective and a different idea I’m in terms of work I would work for roughly two hours a night something along those lines and along with working each night I would obviously book my free periods and also in my history coursework the lessons so you can work out helped and I probably work and obviously I put quite a lot of effort and work into my calls work anyway that has been my tips for history coursework I really do hope this has helped you if it has wish to even like subscribe if you’d like and I will see you in the next video thanks for watching bye

Research Paper: Annotated Bibliography Intro

welcome students in this video I’m going to discuss annotated bibliographies first let’s talk about what an annotated bibliography is the word annotated is the past tense version of the word annotate which means to summarize so an annotated bibliography is a summarized bibliography and a bibliography is a list of sources so an annotated bibliography is really just a list of sources for which you’ve summarized each source the purpose of an annotated bibliography is again to collect and summarize sources and also to compare sources to spot trends among sources and different types of research and to form a conversation amongst sources in an earlier video on research papers I talked a little bit about how the research paper is sort of a conversation between different sources you’re going to present different ideas on different sides of your argument and you’re going to sort of have this typed out conversation between sources you know according to so-and-so this but according to this person this other thing and so the bibliography is going to help you sort of form that conversation and what we’re looking for in an annotated bibliography is analytical summaries so they’re not just summaries where you say what’s in the source you apply some analysis to it so you discuss what’s important about it or how you might use that source there’s two parts to each entry a bibliography line and a summary and in the Bialik bibliography line you’re going to use APA style I am NOT going to go over APA style in this video I suggest using a service like Zotero Zotero here’s a screenshot is a free piece of software that you can download that will help you organize your sources so you can see this is a screen shot of my Zotero that I put together for my thesis my master’s thesis and so I have a folder right here for thesis and I have all the sources listed there are I think 100 sources here and for each source if I click on it I see more information about that source and when I add a source I click this green button I click Add and then ask me what kind of source it is and you can see there’s icons for the different sources so these are journal articles this is a book these are newspaper articles not quite sure I think that’s a website with the little people on it and so I add I say what kind of source this is whether it’s a journal entry or a book what-have-you and then I type in over here as much as I know about that entry and once I’ve done that with my sources I can export the bibliography so Zotero will actually put together the entries for me and I don’t have to spend time formatting my entries in APA style so I would suggest using your service like that I have another video that I’ve added to the course blackboard on how to use Zotero after the bibliography line you have a summary and the summary itself has three parts first discuss the author’s credentials why should we believe what this author is writing why should we care what this author has to contribute second summarize the content and again this is an analytical summary so you want to discuss key findings you want to analyze what you’ve read discuss key terms really what you’re doing in this entry is you’re trying to provide enough information that when you move to writing your paper your information is sort of all in your bibliography so you don’t have to go dig through all of your sources again so it’s really important that when you can you include measurable data such as numbers important passages or quotes in your summary and names of theories that are discussed now one thing that I do see sometimes is that the summary will just be a bunch of quotes from the research paper and unfortunately that’s not going to cut it for an annotated bibliography you need to use your analytical mind to summarize what you’ve read in terms of what’s important what the data means and how you can sort of get value out of this research if you simply copy and paste lots of quotes you’re not going to earn credit because that’s not an analysis it’s really not even a summary it’s just selections and finally in the summary you want to explain the value of the source so how are you going to use it and this is where you can start to compare and contrast with other sources so if you have a source you’ve looked at previously that conflicts with or disagrees with the one you’re looking at now the third part of the summary is where you mention that and you can think about each of these sections as its own giant paragraph authors credentials is probably gonna be the smallest paragraph and then a giant paragraph in which you summarize the content and then a third paragraph in which you explain how this is useful how it compares and contrasts to other sources there might be other sources that talk about similar terms or are similar findings so you want to bring those up in that third portion as well if you’ve done an annotated bibliography correctly then you’ll sort of write your paper using the conversation that arises in your annotated bibliography and I think I talked about this a little bit in the discussion of your research you have this conversation going on if you put that in your annotated bibliography when you go to write your paper you already have this conversation that’s happening in your bibliography of how the sources work together and what it all means you can you can pull that from your annotated bibliography instead of again having to go back to each individual source know what an annotated bibliography is not I think is important it can help you think about something if you think about what it’s not an annotated bibliography is not every source that you read some of the sources you run into aren’t going to be helpful especially early on in your research and this is just how research goes as you’re looking at your research question and you’re trying to understand the thesis statement you’re gonna make you’re gonna run across some research that might seem like it’s what you want but as you get further and further into your research you’ll realize some of it just isn’t what you want so if it’s just not the right topic or it’s sort of tangentially related or it’s very old research or something like that so I don’t want an annotated bibliography you from you that’s literally every source you read every piece of the bibliography it has to contribute to that conversation it has to contribute to your knowledge on a thake if you have a research question about sports marketing and you have a bibliography entry about twitter and its effects on teenagers you know that doesn’t fit maybe you read it when you were doing research because you thought it might help you and then you realize later it didn’t if that’s the case it doesn’t need to be an annotated bibliography an annotated bibliography is not single entries with nothing in common it’s really important that you look for how these resources work together what do they have in common with each other and what does it all add up to it’s not a list of things you didn’t read if you didn’t read the research don’t put it in your annotated bibliography if you rented a book from the library and you only read one chapter then your entry needs to discuss only that chapter and the APA citation needs to include the name of the chapter that you read so don’t misrepresent the work that you did if you only read a portion of something only discuss that portion and make it clear that you only read that portion an annotated bibliography is not descriptive summaries so you’re not just summarizing oh this is a paper by so-and-so from this University it’s about Twitter it’s about social marketing you really need to make an analysis you need to look for terms you need to look for key concepts the names of theories numbers and percentages of you know sir people who answered this or that on a survey you want to be really specific with the information that you include now I do occasionally get questions about sort of how do you organize your research and I’ve mentioned Zotero but I for some reason have a huge problem dealing with PDFs and digital communications I some for some reason I just can’t manage them and I’ve had students come to me before and they’ve had the same issue so I want to show you really quickly if you’re struggling with managing your sources on your computer what I suggest is printing them out and I’m gonna show you this is all the research for a paper that I wrote recently and I printed out everything now this is not I didn’t include books I had other I had maybe ten books but I had to give them back to the library so they’re not in my pile but I printed out all of the research that I found online and you can see it that I color-coded it so as I went through I put a post-it note on each piece that was a different color based on what it was generally about so I was looking at some themes in my research now my research was on how museums are using mobile apps and so I did a ton of research on how museums are using mobile apps and I started to see some themes for example mmm multimedia the I saw lots and lots of research about multimedia being used in apps in museums so any piece of research that I printed that was about multimedia I gave it a blue post-it note with mmm yellow social any social media that was being used in apps and museums printed it gave it a yellow post-it note that says social on it you can see I’ve highlighted key passages so I can put those in my annotated bibliography or if I have too many for the annotated bibliography at least I don’t have to read this again when I need those quotes for my paper and then I you know here’s another multimedia with blue and then another theme that I found was wayfinding apps that help people get around and those were really the three major types of apps that I saw in the research wayfinding multimedia and social apps so I printed everything out and I categorized it and it really helped me think about how to approach all of these different pieces of research you do not have to do this I’m not gonna ask you to turn in your category is anything like that but if you are a person like me who just struggles to deal with digital relics like PDFs and screenshots of research online this might be the avenue for you you need 20 pieces of research the library will accommodate that you have enough printed pages to do that or if you’re at home that’s probably still a manageable amount if you want to print them that’s just my advice if you get a little flustered with the organization of your research so I have a few tips before I let you go on conducting your annotated bibliography obviously I want to use the correct APA citation format and again I suggest that you just let a computer do it for you and get Sottero or some other service there are some services I know I think Firefox has a plug-in where you can just press the button and it will look up the citation for the page you’re on just get a computer to do it for you you don’t want to spend a bunch of time trying to figure out where the commas go and whether something’s italicized that’s probably a waste of your time you want to use correct document format so indents spaces where needed and I have an example of that coming up cite original sources so I talked about this in the last video don’t if you have a review of research or a news article about research find the original resource resource for that use an academic voice this is an academic paper so avoid me my I this is not your opinion this is your analysis build on prior work or review your prior work as you go and use previous sources to find additional sources so I’m gonna go through those one by one use the correct document format there’s an example available on blackboard it’s a PDF that you can download you’ll notice that the first line is not indented and the rest of the lines are indented so make sure you use that in your format cite original sources again find the original source instead of using the secondary source if you can so in the book net smart for example Howard Rheingold discusses some work on blogger voice by filigree and here’s the entry where he discusses that this is a Kindle book so you can actually click on the little 26 footnote and that will take you to the citations and you can see this entry it has the link so if you click the link there’s the original resource you don’t want to quote Howard Rheingold quoting fill a green that doesn’t make sense you want to quote the original writer again use academic voice so avoid I me and my here’s a rewrite to show you the difference if you have trouble doing this just write it the way you want first and then go back and get rid of I me and my so an old version I can use their definition a freemium model how to explain how streaming generates revenue um actually not a bad way to put it but keep in mind you want to be able to use some of what you have in the annotated bibliography in order to write the paper so if you just go ahead and start by writing it in an academic voice then it’s very much closer to the final research paper style of writing and less conversational you could actually copy and paste some of this and we then put it in your paper and rework it a little bit instead of having to completely rewrite it so instead of saying I could use their definition to explain how streaming generates revenue um explain what that is explain how streaming generates revenue according to these two researchers I could use argument they brought up about streaming and say you know they argue that streaming is often better times is often times better quality than prior to copies so you can take a look at this old and new example build on your prior work every time you turn your work in include your previous work the effect of this is that you’re gonna be turning in the same bibliography over and over again and just something as an example here’s a piece from a former student there’s the research question which they turned in and then their thesis statement with which they turned in and then they have annotated bibliography and they just keep adding to that so first they sent the research question then they added the thesis statement then they started adding the bibliography entries so just keep adding and adding to the same document use previous sources to find new sources if a paper really helps you I know it’s difficult sometimes to get on the right foot to really get to an a research agenda that becomes fruitful for you for you so as soon as you find a paper that really helps you look at the bibliography for it for similar sources so this is the bibliography of a source that I found helpful I’m gonna go through that and I’m gonna read the titles and see if any of these might be helpful to me as well because they’re obviously similar in nature to the source that helped me the source that helped me looked at these so I should look at them too so this is a neat little trick for finding sources when you’ve got source a few sources already that are helpful keep going down that path see what was helpful to those people and finally I just remind you about the organization an annotated bibliography is presented in alphabetical order by the last name of the author so as you add entries each week you’re not going to just add them to the bottom you’re gonna add them where they belong in the alphabetical order put spaces between entries so I can tell where an entry begins and where an entry ends and then use proper formatting again which includes indents on all lines except for the first so it should look like this over and over and over again that’s everything if you have any questions about annotated bibliographies or you want me to look at yours because you’ve got one started please feel free to send your questions or your draft my way and I will get back with you as soon as I can I look forward to seeing the start of your bibliographies